Urban trees often are placed in planting areas that do not contain enough soil volume for full growth. This design flaw manifests in pavement heaving, stunted tree growth, eventual tree removal, and death. One solution in new construction projects is implementing soil cells. These engineered grids are backfilled with a specified growing medium that is reachable by the trees roots while also providing structural load capabilities to support vehicular and pedestrian paving types. The cell opening also allows new and existing utility lines to run through it. By implementing a permeable finished surface, the cell areas can be used as an on-site stormwater management tool. For more information on the benefits of the urban forest please see the City of Richmond Urban Greening Master Plan.